Common eye conditions which cause people to wear spectacles or contact lenses are called refractive errors. Common types of refractive errors include myopia (nearsightedness), hyperopia (farsightedness) and astigmatism.

LASIK and PRK LASER eye surgery can change the shape and curve of the cornea to correct or reduce these types of refractive errors.

6/6 Vision (measured in meters) or 20/20 Vision (Measured in feet)

6/6 is a measurement of your distance vision.

A person with 6/6 vision is often described as someone who can see details from a distance of 6 meters that a person with normal vision can also see from 6 meters away.

Therefore, if a person has a 6/12 vision, this indicates that the person would have to be 6 meters away to be able to see what a person with normal vision of 6/6 could see at 12 meters.


If the cornea (the transparent front surface of the eye) is not regularly shaped, the image formed on the retina is blurred both for distance and up close.

A perfect cornea is completely spherical, but with astigmatism the cornea has a steeper curvature in certain axes, called “corneal astigmatism”.


Hyperopia or farsightedness is a condition where people can see objects at a distance, but have difficulty seeing up close. Hyperopia is typically caused by an eye that is too short and light rays focus to a point behind the retina.

The patient usually needs glasses to focus up close or in the distance.


The most common condition requiring spectacles or contact lenses in younger patients is myopia. This is a condition where the eye is slightly longer, causing the light rays to focus in front of the retina.

Depending on the severity, the patient can see up close, but not in the distance without glasses. Sometimes myopia is so severe that the patient cannot see near or far. Myopia can be associated with other eye conditions, such as glaucoma or degeneration of the macula. Patients with myopia have an increased risk of retinal breaks and detachment.


Presbyopia is the most common eye condition, as most people are affected by mid-life. The normal young eye can focus both for distance and up close, almost like the auto-focus of a camera. With age, the eye loses this ability due to changes in the lens and the internal eye muscle. The typical complaint is that the patient cannot read up close anymore and has to keep fine print further from the eye to read.

This normal process continues until one has to wear reading glasses for most close-up work.

How can refractive errors be treated?

Many patients can now be treated with surgery so that glasses or contact lenses are no longer necessary. There are various options and since all eyes differ, your ophthalmologist will discuss the best options for your eyes with you. Using the latest technology, LASER or implantable lenses can make it possible to see clearly without glasses.


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we believe in integrity and compassionate care.